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Meaning and Parts of Computer Hardware Components

Welcome Mastergblogians, Computer Hardware is the collection of physical elements that constitutes a computer system, Computer Hardware refers to the physical parts or components of a computer all of which are physical objects that can be touched.

Computer Hardware Components are as follows:

  • Mouse
  • CPU
  • Optical Disc Drive
  • Monitor
  • Motherboard
  • RAM
  • Expansion Cards
  • Power Supply
  • Hard Disc Drive
  • Keyboard
  • Joystick

EXPLANATIONS on computer hardware components are as follows

  • POWER SUPPLY: A power supply unit (PSU) converts alternating current (AC) electric power to low-voltage DC power for the internal components of the computer. Laptops are capable of running from a built-in battery, normally for a period of hours.
  • MOTHERBOARD: The Motherboard is the main component inside the case. It is a large rectangular board with integrated circuitry that connects the other parts of the computer including the CPU, the RAM, the Disk Drives (CD, DVD, Hard Disk, or any others) as well as any peripherals connected via the ports or the expansion slots.

Components directly attached to or parts of the motherboard are:

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The CPU (Central Processing Unit) performs most of the calculations which enable a computer to function, and is sometimes referred to as the “BRAIN” of the computer. It is usually cooled by a heat sink and fan. Most CPUs include an on-die Graphics Processing Unit (GPU).

The CHIPSET which includes the north bridge, mediates communication between the CPU and the other components of the system, including main memory.

The RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY (RAM) stores the code and data that are being actively accessed by the CPU

The READ ONLY MEMORY (ROM) stores the BIOS that runs when the computer is powered on or otherwise begins execution, a process known as Bootstrapping, or Booting or Booting Up.

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The BIOS (BASIC INPUT OUTPUT SYSTEM) includes boot firmware and power management firmware. Newer motherboards use Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) instead of BIOS.

BUSES connect the CPU to various internal components and to expansion cards for graphics and sounds.

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  • EXPANSION CARDS: The Expansion Card in computing is a printed circuit board that can be inserted into an expansion slot of a computer motherboard or backplane to add functionality to a computer system via the expansion bus.
  • STORAGE DEVICES: Computer data storage often called storage or memory refers to computer components and recording media that retain digital data. Data Storage is a core function and fundamental component of computers.
  • FIXED MEDIA: Data is stored by a computer using a variety of media. Hard Disk Drives are found in virtually all older computers due to their high capacity and low cost, but solid-state drives are faster and more power efficient, although currently more expensive than hard drives, so are often found in more expensive computers. Some systems may use a disk array controller for greater performance or reliability.
  • REMOVABLE MEDIA: To transfer data between computers, a USB flash drive or Optical Disc may be used. Their usefulness depends on being readable by other systems; the majority of machines have an Optical Disk Drive, and virtually all have a USB port.
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